Jaguars Don"t Live Here Anymore
A)Earlier this month, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service announced it would appoint" critical habitat" for the endangered jaguar. Jaguars--the world"s third-largest wild cats, weighing up to 250 pounds, with distinctive black rosettes ( 玫瑰花色 ) on their fur--are a separate species from the smaller, tawny (黄褐色的 ) mountain lions, which still roam large areas of the American West in the United States and take the first steps toward mandating (批准) a jaguar recovery plan. This is a policy reversal and, on the surface, it may appear to be a victory for the conservation community and for jaguars, the largest wild cats in the Western Hemisphere.
B) But as someone who has studied jaguars for nearly three decades, I can tell you it is nothing less than a slap in the face to good science. What"s more, by changing the rules for animal preservation, it stands to weaken the Endangered Species Act.
C)The debate on what to do about jaguars started in 1997, when, at the urging of many biologists ( including me), the Fish and Wildlife Service put the jaguar on the United States endangered species list, because there had been occasional sightings of the cats crossing north over the United States-Mexico border. At the same time, however, the agency ruled that it would not be "prudent" (谨慎的 ) to declare that the jaguar has critical .habitat--a geographic area containing features the species needs to survive--in the United States. Determining an endangered species" critical habitat is a first step toward developing a plan for helping that species recover.
D)The 1997 decision not to determine critical habitat for the jaguar was the right one, because even though they cross the border from time to time, jaguars don"t occupy any territory in our country--and that probably means the environment here is no longer ideal for them.
E)In prehistoric times, these beautiful cats inhabited significant areas of the western United States, but in the past 100 years, there have been few, if any, resident breeding populations here. The last time a female jaguar with a cub ( 幼兽 ) was sighted in this country was in the early 1900s.
F)Two well-intentioned conservation advocacy groups, the Center for Biological Diversity and Defenders of Wildlife, sued the Fish and Wildlife Service to change its ruling. Thus in 2006, the agency reassessed the situation and again determined that no areas in the United States met the definition of critical habitat for the jaguar. Despite occasional sightings, mostly within 40 miles of the Mexican border, there were still no data to indicate jaguars had taken up residence inside the United States.
G ) After this second ruling was made, an Arizona rancher ( 牧场主 ), with support from the state Game and Fish Department, set infrared-camera (红外摄像机 ) traps togather more data, and essentially confirmed the Fish and Wildlife Service"s findings. The cameras did capture transient jaguars, including one male jaguar, nick named Macho, B, who roamed the Arizona borderlands for more than a decade. But Macho B, now dead, might have been the sole resident American jaguar, and his extensive travels indicated he was not having an easy time surviving in this dry, rugged region.
H) Despite the continued evidence, the two conservation advocacy groups continued to sue the government. Apparently, they want jaguars to repopulate the United State seven if jaguars don"t wan! to. Last March, a federal district judge in Arizona ordered the Fish and Wildlife Service to revisit its 2006 determination on critical habitat.
I)The facts haven"t changed: there is still no area in the United States essential to the conservation of the jaguar. But, having asserted this twice already, the service, nowunder a new president, has bent to the tiresome litigation (诉讼). On Jan. 12, Fish and Wildlife officials, claimed to have evaluated new scientific information that had become available after the July 2006 ruling. They determined that it is now prudent to appoint critical habitat for the jaguar in the United States.
J)This means that Fish and Wildlife must now also formulate a recovery plan for the jaguar. And since jaguars have not been able to reestablish themselves naturally over the past century, the government will likely have to go to significant expense to attempt to bring them back--especially if the cats have to be reintroduced.
K)So why not do everything we can, at whatever cost, to bring jaguars back into the United States? To begin with, the American Southwest is, at best, marginal habitat for the animals. More important, there are better ways to help jaguars. South of our border, from Mexico to Argentina, thousands of jaguars live and breed in their true critical habitat. Governments and conservation groups (including the one I head) are already working hard to conserve jaguar populations and connect them to one another through an initiative called the Jaguar Corridor.
L).The jaguars that now and then cross into the United States most likely come from the northernmost population of jaguars, in Sonora, Mexico. Rather than demand jaguars return to our country, we should help Mexico and other jaguar-range countries conserve the animals" true habitat it
M )The recent move by the Fish and Wildlife Service means that the rare federal funds devoted to protecting wild animals will be wasted on efforts that cannot help save jaguars. It also stands to weaken the Endangered Species Act, because if critical habitat is redefined as any place where a species might ever have existed, and where you or I might want it to exist again, then the door is open for many other sense less efforts to bring back long-lost creatures.
N)The Fish and Wildlife officials whose job is to protect the country"s wild animals need to grow a stronger backbone--stick with their original, correct decision and save their money for more useful preservation work. Otherwise, when funds are needed to preserve all those small, ugly, non-charismatic endangered species at the back of the line, there may be no money left.
1. It is still a fact that there is no suitable place for jaguars to live safely in the United States.
2. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service should be more determined and saving for the conservation work.
3. Jaguars were regarded as endangered species because of their rare appearance at the United States-Mexico border.
4. Money was not spent effectively in helping save jaguars in the recent move by the Fish and Wildlife Service.
5. It can be inferred that the United States is not the best choice for jaguars to live from the evidence that they don"t settle anywhere here.
6. South of the United States" border, from Mexico to Argentina, is the true critical habitat for jaguars.
7. The number of jaguars breeding populations in significant areas of the western United States has deceased in the past century.
8. It is necessary for the government to invest lots of funds in order to help jaguars to reestablish.
9. It didn"t indicate that jaguars had settled down in the United States even though they were seen within 40 miles of the Mexican border at times.
10. Fish and Wildlife officials were sure enough to appoint critical habitat for the jaguar in the United States.
【定位】由题干中的still a fact和no suitable place定位到原文I)段第一句：11lefacts haven’t changed：there is still no area in the United States essential to the conservation of the jaguar.
【精解】原文中的the facts haven’t changed对应题干中的it is still a fact，原文中的no area in the United States essential to the conservation of the jaguar对应题干中的no suitable place for jaguars to live safely in the United States，因此原文定位句和题干是同义转述，故选I)。
【定位】由题干中的determined and saving for the conservation work定位到原文N)段第一句：The Fish and Wild Life officials whose job is to protect the country"s wild animals need to grow a stronger backbone——stick with their original.correct decision and save their money for more useful preservation work.
【精解】定位句表明美国鱼类和野生动物服务中心需要坚持他们最初的正确的决定并且为更为重要的美洲虎保护工作节省资金。题于中的be more determined对应原文中的9row a stronger backbone，故选N)。
【定位】由题干中的regarded as endangered species定位到原文c)段第一句：…the Fish and Wildlife Service put the jaguar on the United States endangered species list，because there had been occasional sightings of the cats crossing north over the United States.Mexico border.
【定位】由题干中的in the recent move by the Fish and Wildlife Service定位到原文M)段第一句：The recent move by the Fish and Wildlife Service means that the rare federal funds devoted to protecting wild animals will be wasted on efforts that cannot help save jaguars.
【精解】由定位句可知，美国鱼类和野生动物服务中心的最近行动意味着致力于保护野生动物的稀有的联邦资金被浪费了。题干中的not spent effectively“(资金)没有被有效利用”与此为同义转述，故M)为答案。
【定位】由题干中的the best choice for jaguars to live定位到原文D)段：…jaguars don’t occupy any territory in our country--and that probably means the environment here is no longer ideal for them.
【精解】题干中的the best choice与原文中的ideal属于同义转述，题干中的don’t settle anywhere here与原文中的don’t occupy any territory in our country也属于同义转述，故D)为答案。
【定位】由题干中的from Mexico to Argentina定位到原文K)段第四句：South of our border.from Mexico to Argentina，thousands of jaguars live and breed in their true critical habitat.
【精解】题干中的from Mexico to Argentina和原文中的一样，原文意思是美洲虎在这些地点繁衍生息，也就是它们真正的危急栖息地，故K)为答案。
【定位】由题干中的breeding populations定位到原文E)段第一句：In prehistoric times.these beautiful cats inhabited significant areas of the western United States，but in the past l00 years。there have been few，if any，resident breeding populations here.
【定位】由题干中的help jaguars to reestablish定位到原文J)段第二句：And since jaguars have not been able to reestablish themselves naturally over the past century，the government will likely have to go to significant expense to attempt to bring them back.
【精解】原文定位句的意思足“由于过去一个世纪以来，美洲虎无法凭借自己的力量壮大族群，政府需要投入巨大的资金来帮助它们。’题干和原文中都出现了reestablish“恢复，重建”，且题干中的It is necessary for the government to invest lots of funds与原文中的the government will likely have to go to significant expense属于同义转换，故J)为答案
【定位】由题干中的within 40 miles of the Mexican border定位到原文F)段第三句：Despite occasional sightings，mostly within 40 miles of the Mexican border，there were still no data to indicate jaguars had taken up residence inside the United States.
【精解】题干中的even though they were seen…at times与定位句中的Despite occasional sightings属于同义转述，题干中的It didn’t indicate that…与原文巾的there were still no data to indicate也属于同义转述，故F)为答案。
【定位】由题干中的appoint critical habitat for the jaguar in the United States定位到原文I)段第四句：They determined that it is now prudent to appoint critical habitat for the jaguar in the United States.
【精解】题干中和原文定位句中都出现了同一短语appoint critical habitat for the jaguar in the United States，且题干中的Sure enough和原文中的determined为同义转述.故I)为答案。